Antigenic determinants are sites on the surface of antigen molecules that can interact with antibodies. An antigenic substance can have two or more determinants. Studies have shown that antibodies recognize antigens from the three-dimensional structure of antigenic determinants rather than from the overall molecular arrangement of the antigen. Therefore, an antibody can react with different antigens that are not exactly the same molecular structure but have similar antigenic determinants, which is called cross-reaction.
Tissue cross-reactivity (TCR) is a series of in vitro immunohistochemistry (IHC) screening assays used to characterize the binding of monoclonal antibodies and related antibody-like products to antigenic determinants in tissues. TCR is a very important preclinical safety study. This technology can be used to ensure that experimental antibodies or biological agents do not bind to epitopes other than the target site, and can also be used to determine target species and target organs for toxicological research.
Creative Bioarray has various organizations from various animal species. Our team has many years of comprehensive experience in TCR research, and has successfully optimized IHC analysis for a variety of new antibody types. Relying on an advanced histology technology platform and a professional technical team, we can provide you with all the services you need for TCR research.
We provide the latest IHC detection and analysis methods and evaluate the results. We will promptly notify you of the progress and results of the experiment. You can quickly obtain key parameters to help you with the next steps.
- Target staining specificity verification
- Staining sensitivity verification
- Concentration-staining reaction curve verification
- Optimal dye concentration verification
- In-batch repeatability verification
- Batch-to-batch reproducibility verification
In order to improve the staining conditions in various tissues, as well as preliminary evaluation of possible target or off-target staining, we use high quality Tissue Microarray (TMA) to initially assess the targeted and off-target binding of your biotherapeutic candidates. Tissue sections are treated with positive control antibodies to ensure their antigenicity and H&E staining after fixation to confirm identity and suitability for inclusion in the TCR study.
The optimized and validated protocol is used for TCR research, using full-face slices of 36 tissue types required by the FDA and EMA. Other organizations can also be included as required.
Our team of experienced histopathologists can help you complete the entire research phase from IHC staining protocol development, optimization to tissue specimen staining, and help you analyze the results if necessary. We can carry out customized antibody labeling according to your needs. The time required to complete the TCR study usually depends on the IHC protocol development and optimization phase. Our one-stop service will help you get results quickly.
Please contact us for more detail information.